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Copyright and Permissions: Exceptions and permissions

Welcome! This guide provides information and resources on copyright law in Lebanon and internationally. The guide emphasizes on how copyright law relates to academic activities such as research, teaching, and publishing.

Limitations and exceptions to copyright 

Starting with Berne Convention limitations and exceptions to copyright were recognized as a way to balance the interests of those who create content, with the public interest in having the widest possible access to that content.  Exceptions usually try to provide some flexibility in using copyrighted materials for educational or personal purposes.There  are two trends in applying the exceptions: 

  • The restrictive (close) system (rigid) Means that the exceptions in the copyright law are enumerated in an exhaustive list of lawful acts. Courts interpretation is restricted and very narrow, Law in Lebanon is an example.
  • The open (permissive) system (flexible) It involves a general clause rather than an exhaustive list of exception. The most significant example of an open system is that of fair use of the US Copyright Act

Berne Convention revisions, and the evolution of its limitations and exceptions to copyright (2017)

Th Digital Environment and the need for Technical Protection Measures have created the need more special copyright regulations under fair use and exceptions.

Limitations and Exceptions in WIPO Copyright Treaty

Limitations and exceptions to copyright aim to balance the interests of those who create content, with the public interest in having the widest possible access to that content. WIPO Copyright Treaty, Article 10

Exceptions vary from country to country due to particular social, economic and historical conditions. This report gathers and analyzes law related to copyright exceptions from all 188 countries that are current members of WIPO.

IFLAEIFL and LCA are working with WIPO Member States to gain support for a binding international instrument on copyright limitations and exceptions to enable libraries to preserve their collections, support education and research, and lend materials. More on advocacy.