Open access and open data are becoming more prominent on the global research agenda. Funders in different countries are increasingly requiring grantees to deposit their raw research data in appropriate public archives or stores in order to facilitate the validation of results and further work by other researchers. More on Sherpa Juliet.
The main difference between an open access and open data policy is that there is not already a precedent or status quo of how academia deals with the dissemination of research that is not in the form of a traditional ‘paper’ publication.
Many universities, research institutions, funding agencies have adopted mandates requiring their researchers to provide open access to their peer-reviewed research articles by self-archiving them in an open access repository.
The Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies (ROARMAP) is a searchable international database charting the growth of open access mandates.
An important initiative for the Science Commons project at Creative Commons has been the Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data. The protocol, released in December 2007, is a set of principles designed to ensure that scientific data remains open, accessible, and interoperable. The protocal was implemented in producing the CC0 Public Domain Dedication and Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and License.
Later in 2008, Science Commons released the paper Freedom to Research: Keeping Scientific Data Open, Accessible, and Interoperable .
OA 2020: Open Access 2020 international initiative pushing towards Open Access publishing (2016)
The most widely used practices of Open Access come from the:
|Budapest Open Access Initiative (February 2002)|
|Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing (June 2003)|
|Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (October 2003)|
|OA 2020 Initiative mostly based on Max Planck Digital Library (MPDL) white paper (April 2015)|
|IFLA Statement on Open Access to Scholarly Literature and Research Documentation |
|Public Knowledge Project (1998)|
The Creative Commons Attribution license--the least restrictive license in the suite--implements the Budapest Declaration, and is widely recognized in the community as a means to make a work truly Open Access. CC licenses that add restrictions beyond attribution, such as the Non-Commercial or Share-Alike provisions are popular among scholars but they do not meet the Budapest standard.
This book Digital Public Domain: Foundations for an Open Culture brings together essays which propose solutions for building digital commons and best best practices from managing digital copyright.
When you publish a work, in particular in an open access environment, you’re going to give up certain rights to that work. Make sure that those rights do not prohibit you from defending your work if it is plagiarized.
Note: All Creative Commons licenses require attribution and should be fine.
|UNESCO Information for All Programme (2000)|
|Expanding Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research (February 2013)|
|Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (February 2013)|
|Open Access Policies in the European Union|
The first of these mandates that directly affect research data from universities comes from the UK.
EPSRC Policy Framework on Research Data (May 2015)