Fair use is one major limitation on copyright. It uses an equity-based doctrine that allows a copyrighted work to be used in certain circumstances without requiring the copyright owner’s authorization and without constituting an infringement to Berne Convention. Fair Use in used in the US detailed in Title 17, Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Law,
*Lebanese Law uses Exceptions listing rather than the Fair Used rule.
Fair use recognizes that certain reproductions of copyright-protected works do not require permissions from copyright holders. Under this section fair use is determined by four factors:
Image credit: Figure 14.1. “Gauge Your Risk” stoplight model. Adapted from “Teaching Our Faculty: Developing Copyright and Scholarly Communication Outreach Programs,” by J. Duncan, S. K. Clement, and B. Rozum, 2013, in S.Davis-Kahl and M. K. Hensley
Copyright law provides a classroom exemption in Section 110(1) that allows instructors to display or show entire copyrighted works during the course of a face-to-face classroom session.