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Evidence Based Public Health (EBPH)

This guide provides information about EPH from definition, model & steps to databases, books, journals, guidelines, etc.

I make a lot of decisions about how money is going to be spent, and I  would like to always be able to back it up and say that this is proven, or evidence-based".

(Telleen & Simpson, 2006).

Definition, Model & Steps

There are many definitions for EBPH and even some variations in its name, one variation is Evidence-informed public health.

“Evidence-informed public health is the process of distilling and disseminating the best available evidence from research, context, experience and using that evidence to inform and improve public health policy and practice” (By National collaborating center for methods and tools in Canada).

The practice of evidence-based public health (EBPH) is an integration of science-based interventions with community preferences for improving population health.


This Venn diagram shows the relationships among 5 concepts. Three circles in the middle of the graphic overlap with each other: 1) “Best available research evidence,” 2) “Resources, including practitioner expertise,” and 3) “Populations characteristics, needs, values, and preferences.” Overlapping these 3 circles and in the center is the circle “Decision-making.” This group of 4 circles is surrounded by “Environment and organizational context” (Jacobs, Gabella, Spring, & Brownson ,2012).

Jacobs JA, Jones E, Gabella BA, Spring B, Brownson RC. Tools for Implementing an Evidence-Based Approach in Public Health Practice. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110324. doi .

EBPH consists of 7 steps shown in the pie chart below.





In order to define the research question, four
components are to be identified into PICO framework 
(which mainly serves clinical purposes).





For example, does smoking increase the 

chances of miscarriage among pregnant women

within their first trimester of pregnancy?

 P: Pregnant women (first trimester of pregnancy)

I: Smoking

C:No  Smoking

O: Miscarriage rates

More frameworks are:

  • PIE (Population, Intervention, Effect / Outcome)
  • PEO (Population/Problem, Exposure, Outcomes/Themes)
  • SPICE (Setting, Perspective, Intervention, Comparison, Evaluation)

(For social sciences)

  • SPIDER (Sample, Phenomena of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type)

(For qualitative purposes)

  • FINER (Feasibility, Interesting, Novel, Ethical, Relevant)











The 6S pyramid aims to help healthcare

practitioners search for reliable information

in an effective efficient manner.

For more details over the databases  that 

are used perform your search strategy,

kindly click here.



This step is to assess the quality of study

methods to determine the relevancy and

reliability of the results.









Upon synthesizing, this is to interpret

information and set recommendations

for practice.



This is to adapt information into
local context.


Decide and plan on how to implement the

adapted evidence research into practice or





                                                                    This step is to evaluated how effective the implementation step was.


For more elaboration, kindly check the following National collaborating center for methods and tools in Canada.

More readings about this topic, please check the papers below.